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Monday, 23 January 2017

 Biochemistry Analysis with the Abaxis  Veterinary Analyser

The Vetscan VS2 is an innovative,state of the art chemistry,electrolyte,immunoassay,and blood gas analyser that delivers uncompromising accuracy from just three drops of blood..The Vetscan is amazingly simple and intuitive .It features an advanced user interface and using whole blood,serum or plasma will produce a  precise reference laboratory quality result in just 12 minutes.The Vetscan VS2 requires minimal counter space is maintenance free and  completely portable.It can store 5000 patient records and will detect sample haemolysis,lipemia and icterus.It connects to popular practise management software and contributes immensely to practise efficiency 
Accurate and reliable results should be complimented by accurate interpretation,and I hope the following guidelines will be of assistance.

General Health(Comprehensive) Profiles



ALB :Albumin metabolism is controlled by the liver,Albumin is a low molecular weight protein which is responsible for the maintenance of plasma osmotic levels.

Elevated Levels Indicate  

Low Levels Indicate
*Renal Disease
*Severe Liver disease e.g.Cirrhosis,Hepatitis,Tumours
*Diabetes Mellitus
*Digestive disorders

Is found in both liver and bone.
Cats have less ALP than dogs and the kidneys rapidly excrete slight excesses.
Increased ALP in cats is significant and suggests Cholestasis.
Normal values in puppies and kittens are higher than in adults because of active bone growth.
Diseases causing bone remodelling in adults cause slight elevations of less than two times normal.

Is present in large quantities in the cytoplasm of canine and feline hepatocytes.
The enzyme enters the blood when liver cells are damaged or destroyed and circulates for a few days.
ALT is a sensitive indicator of active liver damage but does not indicate the cause or reversability of the damage.
Increased serum ALT activity indicates recent or ongoing liver cell damage
An increase of at least 3X normal indicates significant liver damage within the previous 3-5 days.

Pancreatic inflammation,Necrosis or Pancreatic duct occlusion releases Amylase into the blood and peritoneal cavity.
This elevates Serum Amylase levels to 2 or 3 times normal
Increases absorption from upper intestinal inflammation and decreased renal excretion mildly elevate Serum Amylase activity.
Amylase is an indicator of acute pancreatitis..

Increased BUN levels can have prerenal,renal or post renal causes.
Heart disease,Hypoadrenocorticism,Dehydration and shock are common postrenal causes
BUN levels decrease with starvation or chronic liver disease.

Calcium is an essential element which is involved in many body systems.
These include the skeleton,enzyme activation,muscle metabolism,blood coagulation and osmoregulation.

Elevated Levels Indicate              
*Renal Failure
*Hypervitaminosis D
*Addisons disease

Low Levels indicate 
*Acute Pancreatitis


Classification                                    Cause
Prerenal                                      *Dehydration
                                                   *Cardiovascular Disease
                                                   *Shock(septic or traumatic)
                                                   *High protein Diet
                                                     (ureanitrogen increase only)
                                                   *Haemorrhage into gastrointestina
                                                       (urea-nitrogen increase only) 

Renal                                          *Renal diseases causing 2/3-3/4 nephrons to be

Postrenal                                    *Obstruction of urinary tract
                                                  *Rupture of urinary tract
Creatinine is formed during ske;letal muscle metabolism with urea nitrogen,the serum creatinine is a crude index of glomerular filtration.


Globulin suggests chronic inflammation or gammopathy.Serum Globulin levels are usually estimated from the total serum protein and albumin levels.If Globulin levels are increased serum protein electrophoresis can determine if the increase is due to inflammation or neoplasia.Inflammation and certain diseases(Feline infectious peritonitis in cats,ehrlichosis in dogs) cause polyclonal gammopathies.


High levels are seen in stress and diabetes mellitus
Low glucose is usually a laboratory error
In dogs persistent marked  hyperglycemia is usually caused by diabetes mellitus.Endogenous epinephrine release and sample collection after a recent meal cause transient hyperglycemia.

Elevated Levels Indicate
*Diabetes Mellitus
*Pituitary Tumours
*Acute Pancreatic,Liver or Kidney disease

Low Levels Indicate
*Liver Disease


Low K is caused by translocationin alkalosis and by excessive loss
High K has many causes e.g.adrenal failure,dehydration and acidosis
Potassium is found primarily in the intracellular fluid and is excreted by the kidneys under the influence of aldosterone.
Renal failure,urethral obstruction,dehydration and hypoadrenocorticism can cause hyperkalemia severe enough to result in cardiac arrest.Serum Potassium levels can be high and intracellular levels low in acidosis because of translocation.


Low NA with no apparent loss may indicate aldosterone deficiency
High NA usually indicates dehydration

Sodium levels are high in extracellular fluid and bone.
Serum Sodium levels are controlled by aldosterone,which promotes sodium retention by the kidneys.
Diarrhoea,vomiting,renal disease,diabetes mellitus,hypoadrenocorticism and uroabdomen can cause low serum Sodium levels(hyponatremia).
Water loss from the respiratory,urinary or intestinal tract occasionally results in dehydration severe enough to increase serum sodium levels(hypernatremia)


High Phos is common in hemolysis,renal disease,hypoparathyroidism,and growing animals.
Low Phos is common in early hyperparathyroidism,alkolosis and neoplasia.

Serum Phosphorous levels are elevated with renal failure,hypoparathyroidism,nutritional secondary hypoparathyroidism,hypervitaminosis D and hyperthyroidism in cats.
Uremia is the most common cause of hyperphosphatemia.


TBIL is the breakdown product of Haem.The major sites of Bilirubin formation are the spleen and the liver.

Elevated levels indicate
*Haemolytic Disease
*Liver infection
*Chronic Hepatitis
*Internal Blood loss


TP is a rough screen for dehydration.
Glomerular disease,Liver disease,Starvation,and Malabsorption can decrease total protein levels.
Severe dehydration,lymphosarcoma,myeloma and infection increase the total plasma protein level.

Elevated Levels Indicate
*Rheumatoid arthritishttps

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